Parasitic

Summary of Foodborne and Waterborne Disease Characteristics

Bacterial summary of foodborne and waterborne disease characteristics
Etiological AgentIncubation PeriodClinical SyndromePathogenic MechanismLaboratory Diagnosis or ConfirmationSuspected food or epidemiologically implicated vehicle of transmission
Cryptosporidium parvum 2-28 days, median 7 days Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fever Toxin? Infection of mucosa Demonstration of organism or antigen in stool or small bowel biopsy specimens OR Demonstration of organism in epidemiologically implicated food Spread by fecal- oral route; ingestion of contaminated food or water
Cyclospora cayetanensis 1-11 days, median 7days Fatigue, protracted diarrhea, often relapsing Infection of mucosa Demonstration of organism in stool Spread by fecal- oral route; ingestion of contaminated food or water Raw vegetables especially strawberries, raspberries, baby lettuce and basil
Giardia lamblia 3-25 days, median 7days Diarrhea, gas, cramps, nausea, fatigue Mucosal irritation Direct antigen detection in stool or demonstration of organism in stool, duodenal contents, or small bowel biopsy specimen Spread by fecal- oral route; ingestion of contaminated food or water
Trichinella spp. 1-2 days for intestinal phase; 2-4 weeks for systemic phase Fever, myalgia, periorbital edema, high eosinophil count Penetration, spread Positive serological test or demonstration of larvae in muscle biopsy specimen OR Demonstration of larvae in epidemiologically implicated meat Meat