Viral

Summary of Foodborne and Waterborne Disease Characteristics

Viral summary of foodborne and waterborne disease characteristics
Etiological AgentIncubation PeriodClinical SyndromePathogenic MechanismLaboratory Diagnosis or ConfirmationSuspected food or epidemiologically implicated vehicle of transmission
Hepatitis A 15-50 days, median 28 days Jaundice, dark urine, fatigue, anorexia, nausea Penetration spread, invasion of enteric mucosa, spread to liver resulting in inflammation (hepatitis) Detection of IgM anti-hepatitis A virus in serum from persons who have consumed epidemiologically implicated food Spread by fecal- oral route; ingestion of contaminated food or water Shellfish
Norwalk family of viruses 15-77 hours, usually 24-48 hours Vomiting, cramps, diarrhea, headache Mucosal invasion Serological testing; > fourfold rise in antibody titer to Norwalk virus or Norwalk-like virus in acute- and convalescent-phase sera OR Molecular diagnostic assays Spread by fecal- oral route; ingestion of contaminated food or water Shellfish
Astrovirus, calcivirus, others 15-77 hours, usually 24-48 hours Vomiting, cramps, diarrhea, headache Mucosal invasion Visualization of small round structured viruses that react with patient's convalescent-phase sera but not acute- phase sera OR Molecular diagnostic assays Spread by fecal- oral route; ingestion of contaminated food or water